Morris L Hallowell IVCustom Architectural Ironwork

Basic Blacksmithing Processes

There are only very few basic operations a blacksmith can perform. Virtually everything he does is an elaboration based on combinations and permutations of these basic forgings:

  Draw out a taper.

  Spread out a flare

  Upset - Enlarge the end of a bar by hammering directly on the end


  Punch. Note the bulge at the sides of the hole. A punched hole displaces steel, maintaining the integrity of the material better than complete removal of material as by drilling.


  Scroll - formed after first drawing a taper, above.

  Fishtail Scroll - formed after first spreading the end of a bar, above.

  Rivet joinery - after punching holes in each of the two bars to be joined.

  Rivet/Tenon joinery - after forming a tenon on one component and punching a hole in the other.

  Collar joinery - A band wrapped around two or more bars to be joined.

  Square Corner Right Angle. Note the greater mass required at the corner. The bar must first be Upset (above) at the point of the angle in order to gain the required extra material.

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Morris L. Hallowell IV - Architectural Ironwork

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